Cement & Concrete
Cement is a hydraulic binder, which acts as a kind of glue that sticks sand and gravel together. Cement was initially used by the Egyptians and then the Romans in the form of a mixture of lime, clay, sand and water and it was rediscovered in the early 19thcentury. By varying the amounts and types of the same basic ingredients, cement with various properties can be obtained. By further varying the ingredients,even more differing cements are manufactured.
The manufacturing process of cement is as follows:
Step 1: Extraction of Raw Materials
The raw materials required in the production of cement would be calcium carbonate, silica, alumina and iron ore.They are extracted from reserves containing limestone, rock, chalk or clay. Blasting is used to extract these raw materials from the quarries. They are then crushed and transported to the plant where they are homogenized and stored.
Step 2: Raw Grinding & Burning
A fine powder, known as raw meal is produced from fine grinding. The raw meal is then preheated and sent to the kiln, where the material is heated to 1500°C before being cooled immediately. This produces clinker which is the basic material for all cements.
Step 3: Cement Grinding
3-5% gypsum is added to the clinker to regulate how the cement will set. The mixture is then ground finely to produce ‘pure cement’. Cement additives, together with gypsum are then added in various proportions to give the cement appropriate properties such as greater resistance to sulfates, higher quality finishes etc.
There are five general types ofcement:
- Type 1 cement is for the general use, typically used in construction
- Type 2 cement is also a general cement but has resistance to sulfates and heat of hydration
- Type 3 cement is for high strength properties in the early stages of the cement’s life
- Type 4 cement is used when very low heats of hydration are required
- Type 5 cement is used when a very high sulfate resistance is required
Aluminium composite panels offer stylish, high quality and eye-catching solution that complement any exterior or interior space. They offer numerous creative and practical fabrication possibilities for curtain walls, paneling and cladding applications. Increasingly, aluminium composite panels are combining aesthetics and functionality like never before.
Aluminium is a metallic element that comes from bauxite ore. Through modern processes, aluminium becomes a light metal which can be given great strength by alloying with other metals. It is inherently corrosion-resistant, light, highly malleable, non-toxic and also non magnetic. Aluminium can be formed by all known metal working processes.
In 1968, Alcan Composites revolutionalized the cladding industry with the development of the world’s first aluminium composite panel (ALUCOBOND®). ALUCOBOND® is an aluminium composite panel made up of a polyethylene / mineral core sandwiched between 2 skins of 0.5mm thick aluminium alloy. Compared to normal aluminium sheet of the same weight, ALUCOBOND® had better rigidity, flatness and colour consistency. This development had since been greatly appreciated and accepted by many architects and designers, who preferred versatility, durability and aesthetics.
As aluminium’s price fluctuated owing to its increased consumption, not only in building and construction industry, but also host of other applications including automobile and aircraft manufacturing, more and more building owners and architects around the world are switching to aluminium composite panels instead of normal aluminium sheets for their cladding requirements. An increasing number of office buildings, shopping malls, airports and hospitals are using aluminium composite panels on their facades to achieve a sophisticated and elegant appearance.
ALUCOBOND® was developed as a stable yet flexible wall cladding material to be used for architectural purposes. Proven since 1969 in various cladding applications around the world, ALUCOBOND® has been consistent in developing quality aluminium composite panels. Besides being weather-resistant, shatterproof, flat, strong and vibration-dampening, ALUCOBOND® has been an easier composite panel to fabricate and install.
Its recent products include a series of new and exciting finishes such as ALUCOBOND® spectra colours and ALUCOBOND® naturAL finish. With its subtle nuances and colour contrasts, ALUCOBOND® Spectra Colours series celebrates the natural colour shifts that occur in everyday materials. The new colour series was inspired by the glowing luster and sheen in modern metals and the colour shifts found in modern luxury goods. ALUCOBOND® Spectra Colours series change colour depending upon the material’s pigment type and the observer’s viewing angle. Different wavelengths of light are reflected back to the viewer producing an ever-changing colour gradient with iridescent highlights.
With ALUCOBOND® naturAL , Alcan Composites developed a series of new surfaces similar to those traditionally found on stainless steel but with a much livelier and more brilliant appearance. The new surface finish is resistant to weathering and therefore can be used for both indoor and outdoor applications.
Unlike anodisation process which causes the natural aluminium surface to lose its original brilliance, the shine and gloss of ALUCOBOND® naturAL surfaces last for years. More importantly, ALUCOBOND® naturAL has the same unequalled materials properties typical of all ALUCOBOND® panels: extraordinary flatness and rigidity, excellent formability, low weight and outstanding weather resistance. As compared to other metal sheets, surfaces of ALUCOBOND® naturAL are also easy to clean and care for, which explains why a number of exciting architectural projects around the world have used Alucobond® naturAL and ALUCOBOND® Spectra Colours for exterior cladding.
Facade treatement with dancing linesThe newly refurbished Penang Swimming Club, Malaysia has incorporated a new design element with a Titanium Zinc material from Swissma Building Technologies Sdn Bhd, Malaysia as its wall cladding system. The material chosen for the Penang Swimming Club is based on 0.7mm thick Titanium Zinc from the reputable zinc supplier – VM Zinc from Umicore, France. The façade is cladded with two different types of Titanium Zinc materials, namely pre-weathered Titanium Zinc (light grey colour) and Anthra Zinc (as in dark black colour).
The pre-weathered Titanium zinc was mainly used as a wall cladding system to envelope 70 percent of the cladding system whereas the Anthra Zinc was selected as a fascia treatment as to provide a contrast to the entire design scheme.
According to Swissma, Titanium Zinc material was chosen not only because of its malleability of the material to wrap up the difficult 3-dimensional curve design, but also because of its durability to withstand the harsh environment of the seafront.
Categorised as a non-ferrous material, Titanium Zinc is purely made out of 99.995 percent of zinc and a mild content of other elements such as titanium and copper (as to strengthen its physical property in terms of creep resistance). As a result, when the zinc element is exposed to the weather, a layer of zinc carbon
ate (light-grey patina) will b e formed as to protect the material from again or oxidized. As time goes by, the finished look of the material will remain in a stable light grey to dark grey colour tone finish.
Design of the Cladding System
The design of the built-up system for the cladding work comprises of top skin as in 0.7-mm thick Titanium Zinc material profiled with Swissma Winklewelt Cladding System and supported by a continuous layer of 0.48BST Prima-Maju metal decking (SANKO Speed Deck) as an underliner system.
The top skin of Titanium Zinc panel is secured by a concealed stainless steel clips system that is fixed through to the metal deck underliner and Zincaume strips at every 600mm c/c. The additional Zincalume strips are added to enhance the pull out strength resistance of the fasteners. As a final touch of the panel, a special seaming tool or machine is required to seam up the protruded ribs (25mm height) for water tightness effect. (Refer dwg SBT/06/PRO/PBC/003 for detail).
Anthra Zinc fascia cladding blended with the pre-weathered Titanium ZincDesign Constraints & Challenges
The Titanium zinc cladding is designed with a random lapping manner at the straight/curve wall area. Most of the lapping details were carefully lapped with minimum of 150mm lapping length at the vertical wall.
The setting-out for the overall “random design layout” was pre-determined in the drawing form, then fabricated and lapped on the site so to create an interesting “dancing lines” on the façade.
As for the installation, each and every piece of the panels was lapped at different levels and heights to achieve a high challenge and difficult lap joints work.
The fabrication for the curve wall section at the top and soffit cladding area was pre-curved and fabricated at factory, leaving a smooth curve solution as the panels were installed at the site according to the as-built radius.
Due to the constraints of the curve area, the Titanium Zinc flat seam system was also introduced as to replace the Winklewelt Cladding System especially at the three dimension curve area as the flat seam system is easier to achieve for the desired curvature shape.
Swissma Winklewelt Cladding System
Both of the wall and fascia cladding are cladded with Swissma Winklewelt Cladding System, in which forming a rich shadow line effect as its protruded 25mm rib height nominated a great shadow effect on the panel.
The Siwssma Winklewelt Cladding System offers several advantages:
1. A versatile roofing/cladding profile with double seamed joints offering a sleek and elegant appearance.
2. It is a versatile profile to suit most of the design requirement in terms of 3-dimension curving system.
3. It is a concealed sliding fixing system, which allow for thermal expansion/movement.
4. Tapered and curved panel is available.
5. A leak proof cladding/roof system as it is using a special forming tools to seam up the profile.
Project: Penang Swimming Club, Penang, Tanjung Bungah
Owner: Penang Swimming Club
Architeect: LLA Architect, Penang, Malaysia
Contractor: Shiangly Builders Sdn Bhd, Penang, Malaysia
Roof Contractor: Swissma Building Technologies Sdn Bhd, Malaysia
Scope of Work: Wall Cladding
Material: 0.7-mm-thick VM Quartz Zinc and Anthra Zinc (Titanium Zinc)
System: Swissma Winklewelt Cladding System (Wall Cladding)
Area: 1,600 square metres